The Chapada Diamantina.
The Chapada Diamantina is a mountainous region located in the center of Bahia. It is formed by valleys and mountains whose altitudes vary between 600 and 2100 meters. It is a very important region for Bahia because of its numerous springs of crystal clear drinking water. It is known as the basin of Paraguaçu, a very important river for the Bahia Sertaõ backlands. Because of its altitude, the temperatures are close to 10 degrees in the winter. The regional micro-climate is also favored by the occurrence of numerous rivers.
The name Chapada Diamantina alludes to the abundance of the diamond in the geological formation of the region. Diamond mining expanded in the 19th century to Morro do Chapéu and Rio de Contas. The Chapada Diamantina is well present in the history of Brazil. At the time of the mining and its decay occurred the Colonelism and the Prestes Column. These struggles inspired many books, novels, and stories. The extracted diamonds were sold to Europe and around the world. The opening of the Panama canal, the first assembly line of Volkswagen, the drilling of the tunnel of St. Gotarde (Switzerland) used diamonds of the Chapada Diamantina.